Wavelength-dispersive (X-ray) SpectroscopyBack

This EKB provides a clear and concise introduction to wavelength dispersive (X-ray) spectroscopy (WDS) as performed in electron microprobes and scanning electron microscopes. WDS has a wide range of potential applications, from its best-known use in earth sciences to analyze rocks and minerals, to use in the life sciences.

With an emphasis on practical applications and issues, this EKB covers the physical principles of X-ray generation and spectrometry, the development of electron microprobes, how WDS is performed on these instruments, and various practical issues related to their operation. Potential problems and how to solve them are reviewed, as well as potential future developments that will sustain the position of WDS at the forefront of chemical analysis.

E-versions of this EKB can be freely downloaded here